Encephalitis is inflammatory disease of any part of the brain – major, small or spinal cord. Often encephalitis is complicated and proceeds complex as meninges-encephalitis, i.e. inflammation encompasses both very matter of the brain and meninges, its sheaths. Encephalitis disease may have infectious or non-infectious etiology (causative agent). The most common infectious agents of encephalitis are bacteria (most commonly occurring as meningo-encephalitis caused by meningococci, pneumococci, haemophilus, tuberculous bacteria, etc), viruses (herpes, rabies virus, arbiovirus, cytomegalovirus, etc) or parasites (crimped by insects, such are leptospirosis toksopazmoza, trichinosis, amoebiasis, etc).
Non-inflammatory etiology of encephalitis might have in complicated brain tumors, after cerebrovascular accidents, multiple sclerosis, poisoning with lead, by reaction after application of different substances in the cerebrospinal fluid after some vaccines (whooping cough, smallpox, rabies) Sarcoidosis, leukemia and the like.
The encephalitis symptoms can be very discreet, as is the case for some of the viral encephalitis, including fever (increased body temperature) and general malaise and fatigue. However, the most common encephalitis symptoms are more developed clinical picture revealing disturbed brain function. Patients have disturbed consciousness, such as become sleepy, slow, slowly responding to questions, to the extent of coma, become inadequate, agitated, convulsions can occur, neurological deficits.
Most people with viral encephalitis have mild flu-like symptoms, such as:
– Aches in muscles or joints
– Fatigue or weakness
Sometimes the signs and encephalitis symptoms are more severe, and might include:
– Confusion, agitation or hallucinations
– Loss of sensation or paralysis in certain areas of the face or body
– Muscle weakness
– Problems with speech or hearing
– Loss of consciousness
In infants and young children, signs and symptoms might also include:
– Bulging in the soft spots (fontanels) of an infant’s skull
– Nausea and vomiting
– Body stiffness
– Poor feeding or not waking for a feeding
However, the encephalitis is a serious disease that requires diagnosis and emergency treatment in hospital settings. Hospitalization takes place in emergency clinics in infectious diseases, neurology, intensive care clinics. The diagnosis is made after a careful reading of information about the onset and course of the disease, the presence of accompanying diseases such as tumors, multiple sclerosis, sarcoidosis, treatments carried out in the recent past, presence of a tick bite. For the accurate diagnosis of encephalitis should be done some laboratory blood tests, lumbar puncture, imaging studies such as computer tomography, EEG functional brain examinations are required.