Malaria is acute parasitic disease, which is caused by single-cell parasitic micro-organisms. The usual malaria symptoms disease are fever, sweating and high body temperature. The disease is transmitted in subtropical and tropical regions by biting of female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Malaria is usually dangerous in the Africa and South America continents and usually the travelers are having big problems. The disease can be caused by certain parasites of the genus Plasmodium. For the people dangerous are only Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae. They significantly differ in the terms of their geographical distribution and course of disease.
The source of infection is the sick man, from who the mosquito sucks blood, thus taking the mature forms of the parasite. The parasites can growth into the mosquito or to be transferred to the bited person. After proceeding of some stages from the biological cycle in the salivary glands of mosquitoes locate sexless forms. When the mosquito bites a person, the parasites goes into the blood, which fall them in the live, where are proceeding the next stages of parasites growth. The liver cells are destroyed by them, and the parasites are going into the red blood cells. The growth of the parasites in the erythrocytes is 48 hours for Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium оvale and Plamodium falciparum and 72 hours for Plasmodium malariae. After this incubation period occurs destruction of the infected blood cells and infection of new ones.
The Malaria disease is really hard to be determined, because of the long incubation period, by in any case there are a lot of Malaria symptoms, which can help you to understand, that you have exactly this disease. The clinical picture of the disease begins with a flu-like syndrome – general fatigue, frustration, hopelessness, increased temperature. The typical malarial attack begins with a feeling of cold lasting for up to two hours, followed by a rise in temperature to over 38 degrees, accompanied by headaches, joint and muscle pain. Sometimes, convulsions may also occur in the background of the fever. This phase lasts 4-6 hours. There is a sharp drop in temperature and heavy sweating. Depending on the type of malaria, seizures are repeated every 48 hours for P1. Vivax and ovale, less, to daily for tropical malaria, 72 hours – for causative Pl. Malaria. These cyclical flows correspond to the dynamics of erythrocyte destruction. In addition, there is usually an increase in the liver and spleen, anemia and jaundice.
The sequence of Malaria symptoms is called malarial attack and repeat the prescribed period of time depending on the type of malaria. Especially in children the Malaria disease can lead to coma and death.
Complications of malaria, including life-threatening coma, respiratory and renal failure, blood clotting disorders. Also can be observed in patients with compromised immune system for one reason or another, pregnant women are also a special risk.