Myoma is a benign tumor that develops in the muscle tissue of the uterus (myometrium), mostly in the area of its body. The disease is found in 20% of women aged 20-35 years, with the incidence increasing with age. Thus, in women over the age of 40, myomas are found in about 40% of cases, but with the onset of menopause, detection is rare. There is a certain dependence on the state and whether the woman has given birth or not – usually nulliparous suffer more often from the appearance of fibroids than women with childbirth.
The uterus is a hollow muscular organ that is made up of three layers – endometrium, myometrium and perimeter.
The endometrium forms the lining of the organ that undergoes cyclical changes in the course of mentoring.
The myometrium includes the plurality of smooth-bundles that form the base of the uterus. Among these are often single elastic and fibrous fibers, which are more pronounced in the cervix. It is the described muscle fibers that are the beginning of the developing myoma.
On the outside, the uterus is covered with a thin serous zipper called peritoneum.
Myoma symptoms are quite varied. Most often this is determined by the type, size, and number of myoma nodes. Despite the differences, the most common myoma symptoms are:
– Bleeding – usually, an abnormal bleeding occurs, which is different from the menstrual. It is either in the form of metrorrhagia – bleeding outside the period of normal menstruation, or in the form of hypermenorrhea – increased menstrual bleeding often occurring with the presence of blood clots in the separated blood. The type and severity of bleeding are mostly related to the location of the myoma nodes, the most likely to give this symptom are submucosal. Typically, women with similar complaints feel exhausted due to significant blood loss and consequently the development of anemia and are more prone to infections.
– Squeezing – this is usually the case in large mammary nodules that fill a significant part of the uterine cavity or grow ectopic, compress different organs. There is a feeling of fullness and pulling in the lower abdomen, accompanied by weight. Often this symptom is followed by the onset of pain. Although rare, the large mammary node may be mistaken for pregnancy due to its relatively rapid increase in size.
pain – when the myoma node is in the process of growth, usually the pain has a spastic character due to uterine contractions. In other cases the pain is undefined and often falls to the back of the hips. Sometimes an early symptom may be the onset of pain during sexual intercourse.
– Urinary incontinence – urinary frequency is often observed due to bladder pressure from the enlarged uterus
disorders of defecation – constipation usually occurs due to the pressure of the large intestine from the enlarged uterus
– Sterility – occurs in about 2-10%
spontaneous abortions – their incidence is higher in women with myoma nodes due to narrowed uterine cavity and altered uterine lining
Despite the listed myoma symptoms, it should not be forgotten that the disease often occurs asymptomatically and becomes the subject of diagnosis completely accidentally or in the course of other studies.