Takayasu’s arteritis is one of the most common diseases of the vasculitis group, also called aortic artery syndrome or impulsive disease, because the inflammatory process often involves the sub-artery. The Takayasu’s arteritis is a chronic granulomatous vasculitis involving arterial vessels of large and medium caliber, predominantly the aorta and its major major branches, including the blood supply brain. The inflammation process covers the middle and innermost layers (media and intima) of the vessels.
Impact on the vascular walls causes aneurysmal sprains, as well as narrowing of the arteries, predisposes to thrombosis with complete blocking of the patency of the arteries. In the case of severe injuries, the blood supply to the tissues and organs is disturbed despite the collaterally circulating circulation usually formed. Especially dangerous for the living are conditions in which blood vessels are affected to vital organs such as the brain, lungs, kidneys and others.
Although it is also common in men, the disease affects mostly young women. The causes of aortic arch syndrome have not yet been determined, but genetic predisposition to the disease is presumed.
Takayasu’s arteritis symptoms
At the onset of the disease, patients most often complain of tiredness, easy tiredness, loss of appetite and weight. Other non-specific symptoms include dizziness, muscle pain, night sweats, arthritis. With the progression of the inflammatory processes, typical symptoms such as pain over the affected arteries appear.
If the disease is not diagnosed and treatment is not initiated promptly, the ischemic changes begin. It affects the blood supply of the heart, which is clinically manifested by seizures resembling angina. The engagement of the aorta in the part from the heart with the inclusion of the aortic valve leads to the failure of the aorta and the formation of heart failure with the years.
When affected by cerebral circulation, patients complain of dizziness, prolonged and severe headaches and mood swings with emotional instability, depression, and so on.
Congestion in the limbs can provoke weakness, the fatigue of their mucus with pain in physical exercise. Particularly frequent is the arthritis affecting the upper limbs, which affects the pulsations – a key sign of the disease – a missing or faint pulse of one of the upper limbs – usually asymmetric, with a difference in the measurable arterial pressure of both hands. Because of this, the disease is often referred to as “non-pulse” disease. Missing or too weak pulse, although in rare cases, the lower limbs can also be found.
Typical for the disease is the presence of arterial noises that are best seen above the carotid and sub-artery artery. Some patients may have arterial hypertension due to the renal artery’s involvement in the inflammatory process. The engagement of the vessels that irrigate the intestinal tract is presented with abdominal pain.